Prehistoric flint extraction and reduction complexes in the Eocene "strip" of the Eastern Galilee (Israel) – implications for provenance studies
Meir Finkel  1@  , Avi Gopher  2, 3@  , Ofir Tirosh  4@  , Erez Ben-Yosef, Ran Barkai  2, 3@  
1 : Department of Archaeology and Ancient Near East Cultures, Tel Aviv University  (TAU)  -  Site web
Tel-Aviv University Haim Levanon st. 49, POB 39040, 69978 Tel-Aviv -  Israël
2 : The Sonia and Marco Nadler Institute of Archaeology, Tel-Aviv University  -  Site web
Haim Levanon st. 49, POB 39040, 69978 Tel-Aviv -  Israël
3 : Department of Archaeology and Ancient Near East Cultures  (TAU)  -  Site web
Tel-Aviv University Haim Levanon st. 49, POB 39040, 69978 Tel-Aviv -  Israël
4 : The Institute of Earth Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Recent surveys of the Eocene Timrat flint-bearing formation of north-eastern Israel that appears as a "strip" west to the Rift Valley, revealed three extensive Lower Paleolithic/Middle Paleolithic extraction and reduction (E&R) complexes: The Dishon, Mt Achbara and Sde Ilan, distanced 15 km from one another. In the Dishon E&R complex a large Neolithic/Chalcolithic bifacial workshop was found within the same area of an earlier Paleolithic E&R activity. These finds substantially revise what we have known about the scope of lithic extraction and reduction in northern Israel in both the Paleolithic and Neolithic-Chalcolithic periods. ICP-MS analysis of flint debitage items from the three E&R complexes and of flint tools from relevant prehistoric sites in the Eastern Galilee and the nearby Hula Valley combined with lithic analyses, suggest that flint nodules from the Eocene Timrat formation "strip" were used extensively in Paleolithic and Neolithic-Chalcolithic times.


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