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From the Lower Danube to the Middle Prut and across the Carpathians; long distance raw materials transfers during the Upper Palaeolithic
Alexandru Ciornei  1, *@  , Alain Tuffreau  2@  , Roxana Dobrescu  3@  , Izabela MariŞ  4@  
1 : Institute of Archaeology Vasile Parvan
str. Henri Coandǎ n° 11, 010667, Bucarest -  Russie
2 : Halma, UMR 8164, Université de Lille
Université de Lille, Université de Lille
59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq cedex -  France
3 : Intitute of Archaeology Vasile Parvan, Bucharest
str. Henri Coandǎ n° 11, 010667, Bucarest, Romania -  Roumanie
4 : Faculty of Geology and Geophysics, University of Bucharest
Bucharest, Sector 5, 36-46 Mihail Kogalniceanu Blvd, 050107 -  Roumanie
* : Auteur correspondant

From the Lower Danube to the Middle Prut and across the Carpathians: long-distance raw material transfers during the Upper Palaeolithic

 

Alexandru CIORNEI - “Vasile Pârvan” Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest

Alain TUFFREAU – Halma, UMR 8164, Université de Lille, France

Roxana DOBRESCU - “Vasile Pârvan” Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest

Izabela MARIŞ - Faculty of Geology and Geophysics, University of Bucharest

 

In Romania, the possible connections between many Upper Palaeolithic sites have been (and still are) discussed mainly in cultural (typology, technology) and chronostratigraphic terms. Building on the current state of research and the growing body of data regarding the lithic raw materials, this study tests the possible connection of different multi-layered Upper Palaeolithic sites (Aurignacian, Gravettian and Epigravettian assemblages) through exotic lithic raw materials (long distance transfers) across different regions of present-day Romania: Giurgiu-Malu Roșu (Giurgiu county), Lapoș-Poiana Roman (Prahova county), Cremenea-Sita Buzăului-Malu Dinu Buzea (Covasna county), Ceahlău-Dârțu (Neamț county), Ceahlău-Podiș (Neamț county), Ceahlău-Cetățica (Neamț county), Bistricioara-Lutărie (Neamț county), Piatra Neamț-Poiana Cireșului (Neamț county), Lespezi-Lutărie (Bacău county), Topile-Dealu Catargii (Iași county), Movileni-Heleșteni-În Răzășie (Iași county), Ripiceni-La Izvor (Botoșani county), Mitoc-Valea Izvorului (Botoșani county), Bușag-Coasta Bușagului (Maramureș county), Remetea-Șomoș I (Satu Mare county), Boinești-Coasta Boineștilor (Satu Mare county). The studied materials come from the collections of the “Vasile Pârvan” Institute of Archaeology. The exotic raw materials were visually identified, while characterization, comparison and confirmation was done through microscopic analysis in thin sections. Criteria relating to the techno-economic patterns of procurement were also recorded. The main raw materials tracked were the famous “Balkan flint” (an Upper Cretaceous flint from the Lower Danube region), the Kriva Reka type of Ludogorie chert (a Lower Cretaceous chert from the Lower Danube region), the “Prut flint” (an Upper Cretaceous flint from the Middle Prut Valley), the “Audia Black Shale” (a Lower Cretaceous siliceous shale from the Eastern Carpathians Flysch), the “Menilite” (actually comprising two types of Paleogene cherts from the Eastern Carpathians Flysch), the “jaspers” and “chalcedonies” (hydrothermal siliceous rocks associated with the Neogene volcanics from the North-Western Romania), and other siliceous materials of unknown non-local origin. The Lower Danube chert types were identified at Lapoș and Cremenea-Sita Buzăului, in sites from the Lower and Middle Bistrița Valley, reaching the Middle Prut and North-Western Romania. The “Prut flint” was identified in sites from the Lower and Middle Bistrița Valley, but also at Cremenea-Sita Buzăului and sites from the North-Western Romania. The raw materials from the Eastern Carpathians Flysch were identified in Southern Romania, on the Middle Prut Valley, but also in sites from the North-Western Romania. The siliceous rocks from North-Western Romania were found in sites from the Lower Bistrița Valley, Middle Prut Valley and at Lapoș. The “Prut flint” and the North-Western siliceous rocks haven't reached the Lower Danube, while in sites from the Lower and Middle Bistrița Valley raw materials from all three areas were identified. Thus with the maximum spread of the exotic raw materials attained during the Gravettian and Epigravettian time periods, Bistrița Valley could be considered a connecting pathway between the Upper Palaeolithic sites from these regions of Romania.


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