Programmes > Par auteur > Al Najjar Mustafa

The emergence of the laminar phenomenon during the Middle Pleistocene in the Levant.
Mustafa Al Najjar  1@  , Dorota Wojtczak  1@  
1 : Integrative Prähistorische und Naturwissenschaftliche Archäologie  (IPNA)  -  Site web
Spalenring 145 CH-4055 Basel Tel.nr. +41 61 207 42 00 Fax-Nr. +41 61 207 42 55 -  Suisse

The transition from the Lower to Middle Paleolithic is complex in nature, primarily caused by the new cultural innovations of the Middle Pleistocene. The systematic production of blades emerged in the Levant during this transition. This distinctive blade production has been discussed since the early 21st Century (Meignen 1998; Monigal 2002; Nishiaky 1989; Wiseman 1993; Vishnyatsky 2000; Shimelmitz 2009; Wojtczak 2014). In the late Lower Paleolithic, this phenomenon was first recognized by Garrod and Rust during their work in Palestine and Syria during the latter part of the twentieth Century. Their research clearly showed two distinct industries Pre-Aurignacian and Amudian. Since then many more sites have been found to contain both in their stratigraphies; Yabrud I, Tabun, Abri-Zumoffen/Adlun, Masloukh, Zuttiyeh and Qesem Cave. These blade industries have been associated with term Acheluo-Yabrudian and dated back to between 400,000 – 200,000BC (Gopher et al.2010). The subsequent Early Middle Paleolithic industries also contained a systematic production of blades, which were situated above the Yabrudian /Acheluo-Yabrudian and directly under the Levantine Mousterian. In spite of the differing names; Hummalian, Abou Sif, or Tabun D, there are many similarities in technological and typological characteristics. All are dated to around 200,000BC (Mercier et al., 2007; Richter et al., 2011).
Primarily, technological and typological analyses illustrate different characteristics between the blade production of the Late Lower and the Early Middle Paleolithic. Reviewing the emergence of blades in the Levant will allow us to develop a better understanding of the direct relationship between the lithic record and settlements during the Middle Pleistocene. In order to construct a chronological model in the Levant during this period, we will pay special attention to the time frame relating to the emergence of blades and their techno-typological pattern. Using a wide range of perspectives, as well as all recent discoveries in the Levant, we will discuss the human occupation and settlement dynamic variability during this period.
References
Gopher, A., Ayalon, A., Bar-Matthews, M., Barkai, R., Frumkin, A., Karkanas, P., Shahack-Gross, R., 2010. The chronology of the Late Lower Paleolithic in the Levant: U series dates of speleothems from Middle Pleistocene Qesem Cave, Israel. Quaternary Geochronology 5, 644e656.
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Richter, D., Hauck, T.C., Wojtczak, D., Le Tensorer, J.-M., Muhesen, S., 2011. Chronometric age estimates for the site of Hummal (El Kowm, Syria). The Lower and Middle Palaeolithic in the Middle East and Neighbouring Regions. ERAUL 126, 249–262.
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Wojtczak, D., 2014. The Early Middle Paleolithic blade industry from Hummal, El-Kowm, Central Syria. Ph.D. Thesis. Basel University.



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