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Rethinking alternative routes for early American settlement
Beatriz Fajardo  1@  
1 : Polytechnic University, Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral FICT  (ESPOL)  -  Site web
Campus Gustavo Galindo Km. 30.5 Vía Perimetral, P.O. Box 09-01-5863, Guayaquil, Ecuador. -  Équateur

The origin and dispersion of modern humans is one of the most striking areas of archaeological research, but the first settlement of the New World continues to be a highly controversial issue. American Pleistocene is marked by the scarcity, precariousness and lack of homogeneity of the available data, especially in South America. In many cases, the data come from old excavations, recovered and studied with methodologies that are nowadays overcome. It is generally agreed that the first people in the Americas arrived via the Bering land bridge that connected North America to Asia during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Many archaeologists believe, therefore, that we must look to Siberia to find the origins of the first Americans. There is no doubt, Beringia was a gateway to the American continent, these megafauna hunters from Upper Paleolithic came into the American continent, thanks to the intercontinental ice corridor between Siberia and Alaska at some temporal window at the end of the Pleistocene. But was it was the first and the oldest gateway?

The presence of oldest archaeological sites at the Southern Cone (Monte Verde, Arroyo Seco 2, or the oldest sites clamed in Brazil: Mato Grosso, Pedra Furada, advertise more complex settlement strategies. Joint to the aging of the Asian and Oceanian Homo sapiens settlement, when coastal lands now underwater were available for movement and settlement, allows as to ask other questions. In Australia, the area between Sunda and Sahul presented a barrier, did this first Australians have the technology to build boats? And could they reach too South America by using Antarctic routs? In this sense, the project Geological evidence of climate change and anthropization at Greenwich Island, aims to test this hypothesis.

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