Programmes > Par auteur > Kerneder-Gubała Katarzyna

‘Chocolate' flint mining from Final Paleolithic up to the Early Iron Age – a Review
Dagmara H. Werra  1@  , Katarzyna Kerneder-Gubała  2@  
1 : The Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology Polish Academy of Sciences
Aleje Solidarnosci 105 00-140 Warsaw -  Pologne
2 : Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk
Al. Solidarności 105 00-140 Warszawa -  Pologne

Chocolate' flint occurs within a wide belt of outcrops of Jurassic rocks and, at present, we know of 26 exploitation points of this type of flint, forming the richest complex of monuments of prehistoric flint mining in the Vistula river basin. The first scientific investigations of the sources of this flint in Poland were undertaken by archaeologist Stefan Krukowski and geologist Jan Samsonowicz in the early 20th century. They described their differentiation and showed the potential location of the deposits.

First ‘chocolate' flint mine excavations were undertaken by Krukowski in Orońsko (Szydłowiec distr.) in 1935. In the 1968 Romuald Schild collected samples of this flint, based on the location of exploitation points lying along the north-east edge of the Holy Cross Mountains – HCM (in Polish Góry Świętokrzyskie). As a result of Schild analyses, 11 groups of ‘chocolate' flint were distinguished.

In the seventies excavations were carry at Tomaszów (1973-1975; Szydłowiec distr.), Polany Kolonie II (1971-1972), Polany II (1971-1972) and at Wierzbica “Zele” (1979-1988; Radom distr.). In the XXI century excavations were continued in Orońsko (2016-2017) and at Wierzbica “Zele” (2012-2014).

As a result of those excavations we have series of radiocarbon dates, mining features and flint materials showing unquestionably the prehistoric ‘chocolate' flint mining from the Final Paleolithic up to the Bronze Age, even the Early Iron Age.

In the presentation we would closely consider mining strategies from the Final Paleolithic to the Bronze Age, even the Early Iron Age – to present the variations between mining features, along with geological structure. We will also focus to describe details concerning characteristic of obtained flint nodules, mining and knapping techniques used at the particular mine by prehistoric communities from the Paleolithic to the Bronze Age.


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