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Questions of hafting technology, use and adaptation in the Neolithic lake-dwelling sites (a case study of antler sleeves from “Swiss collection”stored in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia)
Madina Galimova  1@  
1 : Institute of Archaeology named after A.Kh. Khalikov of the Tatarstan Academy of Sciences  (IA TAS)  -  Site web
Butlerov str.,30, Kazan, 420012, the Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation -  Russie

“Swiss collection” in National Museum of Tatarstan Republic was probably obtained in 1882 by professor N.F. Vysotsky from lake-dwelling sites revealed on the lake Neuchatel. Collection consists of 94 antler sleeves – connection devices between wooden haft and stone axe, adze or cutting blade as well as many tools made from stone and bone (adzes, chisels etc.). Antler sleeve as intermediate device prevented wooden haft from splitting and valuable stone tool from damage. Experimental and technological research carried by Jörg Schibler (2001) proved the presence of two detachment techniques of red deer antler during the Neolithic of Switzerland: by means of indentation technique and string-saw one.

The sleeves morphology and use-wear demonstrate high standardization methods applied by the experienced inhabitants of lake-shore settlements. Sleeves under study are characterized with a variety of shapes and types, among them: sleeves of cylindrical shape with hafting and mounting holes (4) or with one mounting hole (88) including the sleeves of 4 types depending on the presence or absence of clear-cut hafting part, functional of nonfunctional ledge, remnant of the burr.A specific technical method applied to sleeves with such a remnant was the drilling of holes for mounting to the sleeve to handle. There are also clear technical evidence of attempts to repair the sleeves – presence of the cut-marks, cutting notches and the grooves, probably made in the technique of string sawing.

Multidisciplinary paleo-environmental research performed by J. Shibler and co-authors(1997, 2007) allowed to reconstruct the Neolithic economy, changes of climatic and natural resources, production of stone and bone tools dynamics of these processes within the Neolithic societies in Switzerland has been verified by great number of the absolute data from 4300 to 2400 cal. BC. It has been found that the maximum use of antler sleeves by the Neolithic population occurred during the late stage of this period since 3100 BC. Cropped proportions of some of the sleeves from “Swiss collection” were probably related to their extreme deterioration therefore the period between 3800 and 3600 cal. BC, when there has been intensification in the hunting of red deer on the territory of Switzerland, may be proposed.

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