Programmes > Par auteur > Baudouin Emmanuel

Spread and Independent technical Invention of the earthen material in Southern Caucasus and Northern Mesopotamia during the sixth millennium
Emmanuel Baudouin  1@  
1 : Université Paris-Sorbonne  (UP4)  -  Site web
Université Paris-Sorbonne
3 rue Michelet - 75006 Paris -  France

Relationships between Southern Caucasus and Northern Mesopotamian communities were established mainly during the 1960's, especially with the discovery of Mesopotamian ceramics at the site of Kültepe, in Nakhichevan, but the nature of the relationships was not clearly defined. Since the 1990's, research in Southern Caucasus has intensified. International archaeological teams have focused in this region in order to understand the « neolithisation process » on the fringe of the Near East.

Despite a lengthy history of architectural researches in Near Eastern studies, works related to earthen material are recent. Following the further work begun in 1980's and 1990's by O. Aurenche and M. Sauvage in the Near East and thanks to methodological work performed in the South of France by C. Cammas, J.-C. Roux and C.-A. de Chazelles over the past thirty years, an outdated terminology can be revised to define architectural techniques. A precise evolution of earthen material in Southern Caucasus and Northern Mesopotamia during the sixth millennium can be proposed by a re-examination of stratigraphic contexts, bibliographical data and archive records and also by new discoveries in these regions.

We will focus on the evolution of the cob and the mud brick techniques. The spread of the cob could be assumed across Northern Mesopotamia (Hassuna and Halaf cultures) since the second half of the seventh millennium, and then towards Eastern Anatolia (Hajji Firuz culture) and the South Caucasus (Aratashen and Shulaveri-Shomu cultures) during the sixth millennium. Simultaneously appeared the moulded plano-convex mud brick in the Shulaveri-Shomu culture (Aruchlo, Mentesh Tepe) at the beginning of the sixth millennium. This special technique seems to appear as a local and independent innovation in the Kura Valley, according to other architectural characteristics in the region (subterranean and circular buildings...).

Data submitted are the results of a PhD work on know-how architectural exchanges between Southern Caucasus and Mesopotamia during the sixth and fifth millennium.


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