Programmes > Par auteur > Billaud Yves

Ancient DNA from waterlogged wood as a new proxy for evolutionary studies on trees
Stefanie Wagner  1, 2@  , Frédéric Lagane  2@  , Willy Tegel  3@  , Andaine Seguin-Orlando  1@  , Yves Billaud  4@  , Christophe Plomion  2@  , Antoine Kremer  2@  , Ludovic Orlando  1, 5@  
1 : Anthropologie Moléculaire et Imagerie de Synthèse  (AMIS)  -  Site web
PRES Université de Toulouse, université de Strasbourg, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique : UMR5288
31000 Toulouse -  France
2 : BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - INRA
33610 Cestas, France -  France
3 : Institute for Forest Growth, University of Freiburg
79106 Freiburg, Germany -  Allemagne
4 : MCC/DRASSM, Marseille
13016 Marseille, France -  France
5 : Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen
1350 Copenhagen, Denmark -  Danemark

Long-lived tree species build up global forest ecosystems and have been exploited by humans for thousands of years. They are presently of particular concern as their long generation times may limit their adaptability to fast-changing environments. Temporal-series from ancient tree populations can provide a unique perspective on tree evolutionary and forest use history, that may not be detected by studies relying exclusively on extant populations. This information, and a better knowledge of the interplay between forest tree species, humans and climate will likely be paramount for anticipating the potential consequences of ongoing environmental changes. In this study, we took European white oaks (Quercus robur and Q. petraea) as a tree model species group with the aim to use ancient DNA to track past population dynamics and selective trajectories in the face of major environmental changes. Since ancient DNA studies on trees, in particular in temperate regions, are still in their infancy, we first investigated subfossil and archeological wooden remains from different taphonomical and temporal contexts to define conditions that optimize access to authentic ancient DNA. Following optimized aDNA extraction methods and shotgun sequencing, we succeeded in authenticating genetic data retrieved from 167 ancient oak DNA samples aged between 550 and 9,500 years. We will present the first analyses on this extensive dataset, focusing on key drivers of endogenous DNA preservation, temporal insights on degradation, and postglacial patterns of haplotype distribution.

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