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Typical living structures of Kamennaya Balka sites
Ekaterina Vinogradova  1, *@  , Natalia Leonova  1@  
1 : History Faculty of Moscow State Lomonosov University  (History faculty of MSU)  -  Site web
Lomonosovsky prospect, 27/4, Moscow, 119992, Russian Federation -  Russie
* : Auteur correspondant

The 2-nd cultural layer of Kamennaya Balka II is the biggest settlement of the sites of Кamennobalkovskaya Upper Palaeolithic culture, which is located in the North Azov Sea region. It represents remains of a long-term settlement (a basic site) dated within 15000-16000 BP uncal. Several living structures (housing estates) were traced in the settlement of layer 2, their inner organization is alike those found at Kamennay Balka I (monocultural with 2-nd cultural layer of Kamennaya Balka II).

This communication introduces the features of typical site structure and probably the model of housing estates in the system of the region Upper Palaeolithic settlements.

A living place typical for the Kamennaya Balka sites may look like: about 20-30 sq.m. oval of the plan plot having clear spatial borders in distribution of the finds. Apparently the clear borders were determined by the presence of the barrier which is proved by correspondingly located holes with bones dug into them, serving as fortified supports for central posts and small posts at the edges. Along the long axis of this plot or in its central part there are several hearths. As a rule, around the hearths there are concentrated various zones characterized by the intense using of different groups of tools, although there are hearths with only kitchen garbage around them. Most probably, such oval plot represents the remains of a light surface dwelling.

Besides housing structures, there were wide working zones, which were separated from living zone. Components and types of finds are different at living and work areas. The percent of tools and their shatters is much higher at living areas and usually there are less signs of stone splitting. Furthermore bones' fragments are smaller.

At least 7 such living places were traced in the settlement of layer 2. Some of them were existed at the same time, and it confirms with facts of refitting works. Also the refitting data demonstrate close ties between manufacturing centers and hearth plots in the dwellings.

We find the obtained model of the dwelling complex especially important that it permits us to speak about definite house-building tradition in the system of the region settlement. Besides, the presence of dwelling units with stable planning tradition at the sites of the Kamennaya Balka culture may be the evidence of relatively stable settled lifestyle of the population. 

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