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Cacao 1.A: New Data and questions about first south-americans at Antofagasta de la Sierra, Argentina
Carlos Aschero  1@  , Federico Bobillo  1, *@  , Wilfredo Faundes  2, *@  , Julia Lund  2, *@  , Valeria Olmos  2, *@  
1 : Instituto Superior de Estudios Sociales  (ISES, CONICET)
2 : Instituto de Arqueología y Museo  (IAM)
* : Corresponding author

Cacao 1 is a shelter with rock art is situated at the confluence of the Cacao and Curuto bogs, at 25°54'46” S. and 67°20'27.1”W. and at 3755 m.asl, in the Antofagasta de la Sierra Department, Catamarca. We here present the stratigraphic record and archaeological evidences, artifacts and ecofacts, of a component stratified in a layer of megafauna dung. This level is characterized by a matrix mainly composed of vegetal remains and a smaller proportion of fine sand, originated from the disaggregation and trampling of extinct fauna feces (megatherium, mylodon, horse). At the time of writing this abstract there are five AMS dates between 39,000 to 37000 yr BP. The evidences includes an lithic artifact assemblage-7 artifacts- composed of flaked tools, used flakes and, also, some debitage. All the artifacts and ecofacts were found in a flat, horizontal position in the above mentioned component (level 5). Lithic artifacts include obsidian from Ona or Salar de Hombre Muerto sources (60 km), quartzite and vulcanite from sources close to Antofagasta de la Sierra (20km) and a local vulcanite. These indicate a provisioning range of 80Km which is larger when considering also vegetal remains. The contwext also includes cordage from chichillidae fibers, pendants of copper mineral, human hair and camelids fibers.

With the Brazilians sites of Pedra Furada and new nearest sites excavated by Eric Boëda and by Tom Dillehay at Monte Verde, Chile, Cacao 1.A invites to review the chronological data proposed up to date for South America peopling and to a reflection on the hiatus we have between those AMS and the 14000/12000 accepted dates in the archaeological forum.


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