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Technologies of bifacial tools production on the Middle Paleolithic of Donbas
Alexander Kolesnik  1, *@  
1 : Donetsk National University  (DonNU)  -  Website
83001, Donetsk, Universitetskaya Str., 24 -  Ukraine
* : Corresponding author

The Donbas is a special geological structure in the south of East European Plain. A systematic occupation of the Donbas happened on the Middle Paleolithic. Basic complexes of the Middle Paleolithic are sites of Antonovka, Belokuzminovka, Cherkasskoye, Kurdyumovka and others.

The sites of the Middle Paleolithic of Donbas form a sort of cultural opposition. The sites of the first group contain the various industries based on lamellar, the Levallois and radial techniques of primary knapping with unifacial tools. The second group includes the industries with numerous bifacial tools. These are Antonovka I and II, all complexes of Cherkasskoye, Nosovo at the next Northeast Azov Sea Littoral, etc.

The specifics of techniques of manufacturing of tools of the Middle Paleolithic industries of the “Eastern Micoquien” group is their indissoluble connection with techniques of primary (lithic core) knapping. In the first place, it concerns the procedure of production of bifacial tools of a plano-convex design. In most cases for production of such tools, as well as for many lithic cores with radial system of knapping, massive large lithic flakes with primary crust were used as a preform. Small chips of forming of platforms were oriented to the dorsal surface of lithic flake-half-made product so that it took a shape of massive scraper. These platforms formed a basis for the modeling chips from the ventral party. Chips eliminated a percussing knob of lithic flake-half-made product and made one of the sides of a tool flat. So-called technical “ventral” chips became derivative products of this stage of working; some of them have morphology of flakes of “Kombeva” type. The second stage of handling was connected with formatting of the convex dorsal side of a product. Chips from already flattened ventral surface performed it.

The second technology of bifaces production in the Donets industries of the “Eastern Micoquien” is not so specific. Outlines of products in the section are generally symmetric. Mainly they are leaf-shaped blades of different types. Some asymmetric in section backed knives also have biconvex section.

In general, an arsenal of methods of bifacial working of tools in the industries of the “Eastern Micoquien” of Donbas has a number of features that were determined by a cultural regulation and nature of local flint raw materials.

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